Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines. The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are not derived from petroleum, such as biodiesel, biomass to liquid (BTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) diesel, are increasingly being developed and adopted. To distinguish these types, petroleum-derived diesel is increasingly called PETRODIESEL. Ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD) is a standard for defining diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulphur contents.
Octane is a hydrocarbon liquid that is used as a reference standard to describe the tendency of gasoline, petrol, or benzin fuels to self-ignite during compression prior to the desired position of the piston in the cylinder as appropriate for valve and ignition timing. The problem of premature ignition is referred to as pre-ignition and also as engine knock, which is a sound that is made when the fuel ignites too early in the compression stroke.
Mazut is a heavy, low quality fuel oil, used in generating plants and similar applications. In the United States and Western Europe, mazut is blended or broken down with the end product being diesel.
Mazut may be used for heating houses in former USSR and in countries of Far East that do not have the facilities to blend or break it down into more traditional petrochemicals. In the west, furnaces that burn mazut are commonly called “waste oil” heaters or “waste oil” furnaces.
Mazut-100 is a fuel oil that is manufactured to GOST specifications, for example GOST 10585-75 or 99. (GOST is the Russian system of standards, much like ASTM, for example). Mazut is almost exclusively manufactured in the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Turkmenistan. This product is typically used for larger boilers in producing steam since the BTU content is high. The most important consideration (not the only consideration) when grading this fuel is the sulphur content, which can mostly be affected by the source feedstock. For shipment purposes, this product is considered a “dirty oil” product, and because viscosity drastically affect whether it is able to be pumped, shipping has unique requirements. Mazut is much like Number 6 Oil, and is part of the products left over after gasoline and lighter components are evaporated from the crude oil.
The main difference between the different types of Mazut-100 is the content of sulphur. The grades are represented by these sulphuric levels:
“Very Low Sulphur” is Mazut with a sulphur content of 0.5%
“Low Sulphur” is a Mazut with a sulphur content of 0.5-1.0%
“Normal Sulphur” is a Mazut with a sulphur content of 1.0-2.0%
“High Sulphur” is a Mazut with a sulphur content of 2.0-3.5%
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, autogas, or liquid propane gas) is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gasses used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles. It is increasingly used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant, replacing Chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer.
LPG is synthesized by refining petroleum or “wet” natural gas and is usually derived from fossil fuel sources, being manufactured during the refining of crude oil, or extracted from oil or gas streams as they emerge from the ground. It was first produced in 1910 by Dr. Walter Snelling, and the first commercial products appeared in 1912. It currently provides about 3% of the energy consumed, and burns cleanly with no soot and very few sulphur emissions, posing no ground or water pollution hazards. LPG has a typical specific calorific value of 46.1 MJ/kg compared with 42.5 MJ/kg for fuel-oil and 43.5 MJ/kg for premium grade petrol (gasoline). However, its energy density per volume unit of 26 MJ/l is lower than either that of petrol or fuel-oil.
Jet A is the standard jet fuel type in the U.S. since the 1950s and is only available there. Jet A is similar to Jet-A1, except for its higher freezing point of ?40 ºC (100 ºF), with an auto ignition temperature of 210 ºC (410 ºF). Jet A can be identified in trucks and storage facilities by the UN number 1863 Hazardous Material placards.
Jet A trucks, storage tanks, and pipes that carry Jet A are marked with a black sticker with a white “Jet A” written over it, next to another black stripe. Jet A will have a clear to straw color if it is clean and free of contamination. Water is denser than Jet A, and will collect on the bottom of a tank. Jet A storage tanks must be dumped on a regular basis to check for water contamination. It is possible for water particles to become suspended in Jet A, which can be found by performing a “Clear and Bright” test. A hazy appearance can indicate water contamination beyond the acceptable limit of 30ppm (parts per million).
Jet fuel is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines. It is clear to straw colored. The most common fuels are Jet A and Jet A-1 which are produced to an internationally standardized set of specifications. The only other jet fuel that is commonly used in civilian turbine engine-powered aviation is called Jet B and is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance.
Jet fuel is a mixture of a large number of different hydrocarbons. The range of their sizes (molecular weights or carbon numbers) is restricted by the requirements for the product, for example, freezing point or smoke point. Kerosene-type jet fuel (including Jet A and Jet A-1) has a carbon number distribution between about 8 and 16 carbon numbers; wide-cut or naphtha-type jet fuel (including Jet B), between about 5 and 15 carbon.